Procedures that separate and orchestrates according to size, fer-rous wear particles from a lubricant for investigation with a micro-scope. The Ferro gram provides data as a recognisable proof of wear particle types and a depiction of the wear mode that produces the particles.
Viscosity is a standout amongst the most significant properties of a grease as it decides both the film thickness of the oil and how promptly the oil will stream into the restricted territory separating the moving metal parts.
The essential utilisation of this technique is for thick materials hav-ing flash Points of 79C or more. This test decides the temperature at which the oil will form a combustible mixture with air. The flash point can be contrasted with standard particulars to determine whether the oil meets the specification. It is regularly utilised as a marker of fuel dilution.
The cloud point characterises the temperature at which wax crys-tals appear in the fuel after cooling. The cloud point of a fuel and its effect on cold flow properties should be monitored to guarantee in-convenience free activity in cold climates.
Density is a fundamental physical property that can be utilised in conjunction with different properties to portray both the light and heavy fractions of petroleum and petroleum commodities. Determi-nation of the density or relative density of petroleum and its prod-ucts is essential for the transformation of measured volumes at the standard temperature of 15°C.
This test helps in determining the most minimal temperature at which movement of the fuel is observed. The pour point of a petro-leum product is an index of the most minimal temperature of use for certain applications.
Conradson carbon residue (CCR):
This test helps in deciding the amount of carbon residue left after evaporation of an oil and to demonstrate relative coke-forming pro-pensities. This test method is commonly relevant to relatively non-volatile petroleum based goods which partially deteriorate on distil-lation at atmospheric pressure.
Water & sediments:
This test helps in deciding the volumetric percent of water and sed-iment in middle distillate fuels. Water and sediment in a fuel oil can cause fouling of the fuel-handling facilities, obstruct fuel stream and cause inward corrosion.
Acid value (or neutralisation number or acid number or acidity) is the mass of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in milligrams that is re-quired to neutralise one gram of chemical substance.
Acid number (TAN):
This test helps in deciding the acidic or essential constituents in pe-troleum commodities and lubricants solvent or nearly soluble in mix-tures of toluene and isopropyl liquor.
Base number (TBN):
This test helps in deciding the proportion of the amount of funda-mental substances in the oil constantly under the conditions of the test. It is sometimes utilised as a proportion of lubricant degrada-tion in services. However, any breaking point will be experimentally settled.
This test helps in deciding the Value that expresses the weight in milligrams of an alkali expected to neutralise the acidic material in one gram of oil. The neutralisation number of oil is an indication of its acidity.
This test helps in deciding the instrumental determination of sulphur content in samples of carbon dark feedstock oils. Values obtained represent the total sulphur content.
This test helps in deciding the atmospheric distillation of petroleum based commodities utilising a laboratory batch distillation unit to de-cide quantitatively the boiling range characteristics of such items as light and middle distillates, automotive flash start motor fuels with or without oxygenates, aviation fuels, avionics turbine fuels, diesel fuels, biodiesel blends up to 20 %, marine fuels, special oil spirits, naphtha’s, white spirits, kerosene’s, and Grades 1 and 2 burner fuels.
This test helps in deciding the characterisation of unadulterated hy-drocarbons and in the examination of hydrocarbon mixtures. These test techniques cover the determination of the aniline point of petro-leum based goods and hydrocarbon solvents.
This test helps in deciding the proportion of a fuel’s ignition delay; the timespan between the beginning of infusion and the first recog-nisable pressure increment amid ignition of the fuel. In a particular diesel motor, higher cetane fuels will have shorter ignition defer pe-riods than lower cetane fuels.
Copper strip corrosion:
This test helps in deciding the corrosiveness of fuels and oils to copper. The test is intended to survey the general level of corro-siveness of an oil based good.
Wear metals –
Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mo, Cu, Cr, Zn, P, Ba, B, Al, Pb, Mn, Ni, Si, V, Sn, Ag, Fe etc.:
This test helps in deciding the expensive damage and down time to high value motors, gears, generators, turbines and other significant hardware. Early identification of wear metals in lubricants can im-prove machinery reliability, particularly whenever done as a major aspect of an expert oil condition monitoring system.
Ash Content of Oil
Ash ranges from 0.1% to 0.2%. The ash content of a fuel is a measure of the amount of inorganic noncombustible material it con-tains
Equilibrium reflex boiling point
Boiling point temperature when the fluid is brand new, no moisture absorption. WERBP (Wet Equilibrium Reflux Boiling Point): Boiling point temperature with fluid that has 3.7% water by volume, typical-ly after 1-2 years of fluid use
API gravity is thus an inverse measure of a petroleum liquid’s density relative to that of water (also known as specific gravi-ty). It is used to compare densities of petroleum liquids
The viscosity index (VI) is an arbitrary, unitises measure of the change of viscosity with temperature, mostly used to charac-terise the viscosity-temperature behaviour of lubricating oils
Heavy metal content
Various potentially toxic elements such as heavy metals are present in crude oil and elevated concentrations of these compounds are known to affect soil, its toxicity and associated components(1, 2)