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Textile, Footwear & Leather Products

Today, a noteworthy amount of footwear, leather goods, fashion accessories and clothing are produced around the world. Being a fact , it has now become very vital to testing these products and check if it meets the kind of standards your product and market will require for compliance and quality.

 

At METS Lab,

· We perform testings as per ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation and we are the best testing lab in UAE and other region UK, Abu Dhabi, Qatar.

· We follow all the international standards like ASTM, GSO, LCMS,ISO,BS EN, DIN, KS,SASO standards.

· Our testing services cover a wide range of textiles commodities like Yarn, fabric, Apparel, knitwear, Denim, Woven, Towels, Textile and Garment Accessories. METS LAB provides a range of quality assurance and lab testing services to evaluate your textiles against your quality standards and the requirements of your determination market. 

METS Lab offers inspections and laboratory tests for all modern textiles including textile and canvas rolls. We offer a wide range of physical and mechanical tests to assess the quality of your textiles such as performance, dimensional safety, weather testing, thermal and water permeability testing, burn test, stiffness and bending test, seam strength, testing strength & thickness, Compression and receivers, tensile properties etc. In addition to the above physical tests METS Lab provide many laboratory tests to help you navigate the safety requirements and meet the international standards of destination market.

Textile

In today’s competitive market consumers pay more attention to the quality of material and fibres beyond their cost and charges. Therefore, textiles need not to be only stylish but also consistently well-made and free from hazardous substances.

Middle East Testing Services has complete in house facility to execute various jobs related to Textile TestingMETS textile testing lab is adequately equipped with the latest sophisticated analytical instruments and a team of competent & experienced laboratory technicians to provide accurate & meaningful testing services for a wide variety of textile samples in strict accordance with various National & International Testing Standards & Specifications.

We are performing the following tests as per New SABER Regulation (SASO – GSO- 1957)

  • Determination of the content of pesticides : Textile fibers embody an exceptional source of nutrition for microbes and insects, so it is necessary to control the pest for the long-term preservation of textiles. Different types of pesticides are insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, acaricides, and fumigants.  They can induce potential health hazards to all living beings.  Pesticides in the textile specimen is determined via solvent extraction and detection by means of GC-MS or LC-MS/MS.   Some of the international standards recommending the test methods for the determination of pesticides in textile and leather are SASO GSO 1957, ISO 22517:2019, GB/T 18412.1-2006, GB/T 18412.2-2006, GB/T 18412.3-2006, GB/T 18412.4-2006, GB/T 18412.5-2008, GB/T 18412.6-2006, GB/T 18412.7-2006.  SASO GSO 1957 regulation stipulates mandatory evaluation of 54 pesticides and the total content of the substances shall not exceed 0.5 ppm.
  • Extractable heavy metals : Heavy metals in the textile often exist as components of dyestuffs it can be detected by employing ICP-AES. Some of the international standards for the detection of heavy metals in textiles and leather are EN 16711-1, EN 16711-2, EN 1811, EN 71-3, ISO 5398. As per the regulation SASO GSO 1957, the heavy metal concentration should be: Antimony (Sb) should not exceed 30 ppm for children and with or without skin contact, Arsenic (As) and Lead (Pb) should not exceed 0.2ppm for children and 1ppm for rest of the cases. Cadmium (Cd) should not exceed 0.1  ppm for children and with or without skin contact, Chromium (Cr) should not exceed 1 ppm for children and 2ppm for rest of the cases, Chromium (Cr) VI should not exceed 0.5 ppm for children and with or without skin contact, Cobalt (Co) and Nickel (Ni)  should not exceed 1ppm for children and 4ppm for rest of the cases, Copper (Cu) should not exceed 25ppm for children and 50ppm for rest of the cases, Mercury (Hg) should not exceed 0.02 ppm for children and with or without skin contact
  • Phenols : The phenols are detected in textiles; as it has been released from phenolic dyes which has been used as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and UV protection in textile industry. SASO GSO 1957 recommended ISO 1833-24:2010 (Textiles Quantitative chemical analysis Part 24: Mixtures of polyester and certain other fibres (method using phenol and tetrachloroethane)) as the test method for the evaluation of phenols in textiles. In this method, the polyester fibre is dissolved out from a known dry mass of the mixture, with a reagent composed of phenol and tetrachloroethane. The residue is collected, washed, dried and weighed; its mass. The percentage of polyester is found by difference. The percentage of penta chloro phenol and tetra chloro phenol shall be within the permissible limits (0.5 ppm). In case of ortho phenol (OPP), the permissible limit is 0.5 ppm for children and 1 ppm for other purpose.
  • PVC Plasticizers
  • Organic tin compounds :

    Organic tin compounds find application in textile industry as biocides to prevent microbiological activities and as stabilizers in polymers or in plastisol prints.  Some of the standards citing the methodology for the detection of organotin compounds are :

    • ISO 17353:2004(en) Water quality — Determination of selected organotin compounds — Gas chromatographic method.

     It details the determination of Monobutyltin cation (MBT), Dibutyltin cation (DBT), Tributyltin cation (TBT), Tetrabutyltin (TTBT), Monooctyltin cation (MOT), Dioctyltin cation (DOT), Triphenyltin cation (TPhT), Tricyclohexyltin cation (TCyT) by employing GC-MS.

    • ISO 22744-1:2020 Textiles and textile products Determination of organotin compounds Part 1: Derivatisation method using gas chromatography.
    • ISO 22744-2:2020 Textiles and textile products Determination of organotin compounds Part 2: Direct method using liquid chromatography
    Conferring the specification SASO GSO 1957; determination of TBT and DBT are mandatory in textiles and must not exceed the limit of TBT (less than 0.5 for children and 1 ppm for with or without skin contact) and DBT (1 ppm)
  • Colourants
  • Treatment with retardants substances
  • Emission of volatiles : In textiles, VOCs emission will occur from the dyes and chemicals used to color the fabrics. ISO 10580:2010 (Resilient, textile and laminate floor coverings Test method for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions) is the test methodology for the detection of volatile compounds in textiles by employing emission test chambers.
  • Determination of odour :

    ISO 17299 – 3 (Gas Chromatography Test Method for the Deodorant Testing of Textile Products) aids in the determination of odour of textiles via GC-MS. This method applies to the odour component chemicals, such as indole, isovaleric acid, nonenal, and acetic acid with added sodium chloride (NaCl). There are two different preparation methods for its determination.

    Method A – An odor chemical is added to a container with the specimen, avoiding direct contact with the specimen. Here each chemical is tested individually.

    Method B – An odor chemical is injected directly onto the specimen in a container. Here a mixture of chemicals (acetic acid and sodium chloride, NaCl) is tested together.
  • Azo dyes :

    Azo dyes are synthetic dyes used for coloring textiles and leather. Azo dyes may contain/produce aromatic amines which can be carcinogens. These azo dyes are therefore restricted in textile and leather articles in certain countries, the concentration of azo dyes is prohibited in the regulation SASO GSO 1957.  The international standards mentioning the test method for the detection of azo dyes via HPLC-DAD are as follows: 

  • ISO 14362-1:2017 Textiles Methods for determination of certain aromatic amines derived from azo colorants Part 1: Detection of the use of certain azo colorants accessible with and without extracting the fibres
  • ISO 14362-3:2017 Textiles Methods for determination of certain aromatic amines derived from azo colorants Part 3: Detection of the use of certain azo colorants, which may release 4-aminoazobenzene
  • Carcinogenic amines : Carcinogenic aromatic amines are produced as a result of cleavage of azo dyes in textiles industry.  SASO GSO 1957 recommend the detection of carcinogenic dye stuffs in textiles as they should be prohibited.  In ISO 16373-3:2014 the detection is based on the extraction of dyestuffs using triethylamine/methanol solvent and analysis via HPLC-DAD.  As per ISO 16373-3, a colored test specimen from the textile article is extracted with pyridine/water at 100 °C. The extract is analyzed by liquid chromatography/diode array detection (LC/DAD) and/or by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS).

ISO 16373-2:2014 Textiles — Dyestuffs — Part 2: General method for the determination of extractable dyestuffs including allergenic and carcinogenic dyestuffs (method using pyridine-water)

ISO 16373-3:2014 Textiles — Dyestuffs Part 3: Method for determination of certain carcinogenic dyestuffs (method using triethylamine/methanol)

  • Herbicides & Fungicides
  • Flame retardants : Flame-retardant fabrics are textile fabrics which are inherently flame retardant or treated with a flame-retardant finish; efficient in preventing the spread of flame. As per SASO GSO 1957, phosphorous and brominated flame retardants are compulsory evaluated because it should not be added in textiles.  The test methods for these flame retardants are listed below :
  • ISO 17881-1:2016-Textiles-Determination of certain flame retardants-Part 1: Brominated flame retardants. It is the test method for determining polybrominated flame retardants in textiles by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
  • ISO 17881-2:2016(en)-Textiles — Determination of certain flame retardants — Part 2: Phosphorus flame retardants. This method specifies a test method for determining Tris (2,3 dibromopropyl) phosphate (TRIS) and Tris (aziridinyl) phosphinoxide (TEPA) in textiles by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).
  • Chlorinated Organic Compounds : Chlorinated Organic Compounds (Chlorobenzenes and chlorotoluenes) are used as carriers in the dyeing process and also used as solvents in textile industry.   These chemical compounds pose potential health risks to human health, so it is vital to determine these compounds.  EN 17137:2018 (Textiles – Determination of the content of compounds based on chlorobenzenes and chlorotoluenes) specifies the extraction of test material via ultrasonication in a closed vessel using dichloromethane followed by filtration through membrane filters. The extract is analysed to determine the content of chlorobenzenes and chlorotoluenes by GC-MS for quantification.
  • Phthalates : The test method ISO 14389 (Textiles — Determination of the phthalate content — Tetrahydrofuran method) aids in the detection of phthalate content in textiles by employing GC-MS.  In this method, phthalates are extracted from textile specimen by ultrasonic bath with tetrahydrofuran followed by precipitation using appropriate solvent.  Centrifugate the extract and then take a suitable volume of the organic solution for analysis.  This method is suitable for the detection of Di-cyclo-hexyl phthalate, Di-iso-nonyl phthalate, Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Di-n-octyl phthalate, Di-iso-decyl phthalate, Di-butyl phthalate, Di-iso-butyl phthalate, Di-n-pentyl phthalate, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, Bis-(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate, Di-iso-pentyl phthalate, Di-n-hexyl phthalate, N-pentyl-iso-pentyl phthalate, Di-iso-hexyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate.  But the specification SASO GSO 1957 recommended the detection of Di-n-octyl phthalate, Di-iso-decyl phthalate, Di-iso-nonyl phthalate, Butyl benzyl phthalate, Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, Di-butyl phthalate as mandatory and should not be added in textiles.
  • Fibre composition : The analysis and determination of fabric composition can be performed by using the test method ISO 1833-Standard Performance Specification for Towel Products for Institutional and Household Use-Fiber Composition.  It is the qualitative identification of fabric components and selective determination of the rate of each component by employing analytical techniques including Microscopic inspection, FTIR analysis and XRF analysis.

For Further Readings:

BREAKING LOAD: – The maximum force in Newton required to break the fabric.
Test Method: – ASTM D5034.

ELONGATION: – The difference between the length of a stretched specimen at breaking load and its initial length usually expressed as percentage of the latter.
Test Method: – ISO  13934-1: 2013.

TEAR RESISTANCE: – The force in Newton required to tear a specimen. 
Test Method: – ISO  13937-1: 2000.

BURSTING STRENGTH: – The maximum fluid pressure is applied to a circular specimen for distending it to rupture. Test Method: – IS0 13938-1: 1999.

FLAMMABILITY: – The characteristics of a material which pertain to its relative ease of ignition & relative ability to sustain combustion.
Test Method: – ASTM D6413.

MASS PER UNIT AREA: – It can be defined as the mass in gram of one square metre of fabric.
Test Method: – ISO  3801: 1977.

THREADS COUNT: – It can be defined as the number of threads in per unit length of fabric.
Test Method: – ISO  7211-2: 1984.

DIMENSIONAL CHANGE OF FABRIC: – The increase or decrease in dimensions that occurs in the fabric or garments after the material is soaked in water and agitated for a short period under specified condition, expressed as a percentage of the corresponding dimension before the treatment.
Test Method: – ISO 5077 / 6330.

DIMENSIONAL CHANGE OF FABRIC (other than wool): – All woven and knitted fabrics change in dimensions on soaking in water without agitation.
Test Method: – ISO  5077 / 6033.

LINEAR DENSITY: –

  • Cotton Count System – The linear density of cotton yarn expressed as the number of 768.1m hanks per 453.6 gm.
  • Tex System – It can be defined as the mass in gram of 1 kilo meter of yarn.

Test Method: – ISO  7211-5 : 1984.

CRIMP: – The difference between the straightened length of yarn and the length of yarn while in the cloth expressed as a percentage of the latter.
Test Method: – ISO  7211 -3: 1984.

TWIST: – It can be defined as the number of turns about the axis of a yarn based on its nominal gauge length before untwisting. It should be preferably expressed as the turn per meter.
Test Method: – ISO  2061: 2010.

 

COLOUR FASTNESS: – The fastness is assessed by comparing the change in colour of treated specimen to original sample of the fabric.

Type of Colour Fastness

  • Colour Fastness to Daylight: – A specimen of textile material is exposed to daylight under the prescribed conditions along with the standard patterns. The fastness is assessed by comparing the change in colour with that of the standard patterns. Test Method: IS0  105  B02 : 2014.
  • Colour Fastness to Washing: – A specimen in contact with one or two specified adjacent fabrics is mechanically agitated under specified conditions of time and temperature in a soap or, soap & soda solution then rinsed and dried. The change in colour of the specimen is assessed with reference to the original fabric with the grey scale. Test Method: ISO  105  C06 : 2010.
  • Colour Fastness to Organic Solvent: – A specimen in contact with adjacent fabric is agitated in organic solvent which is commonly used in cleaning or mill processing under specified conditions. The change in colour of the specimen is assessed with the original fabric with the grey scale. Test Method: ISO  105-X05 : 1994.
  • Colour Fastness to Perspiration: – The specimens in contact with two different solutions containing histidine, drained and placed between two plates under a specified pressure in testing device. The change in colour of the specimen is assessed with the original fabric with the grey scale. Test Method: IS0  105 – E04 : 2013.
  • Colour Fastness to Bleaching: – A specimen is agitated in a solution of Sodium Hypochlorite, rinsed in water, agitated in a Hydrogen peroxide solution, rinsed and dried. The change in colour is assessed with the original fabric with the grey scale. Test Method: ISO  105 N01  : 1993.
  • IDENTIFICATION OF FIBRES: – Fibre identification is an important step in predicting the behaviour of a textile artifact in various environments. Knowing the identity of the fibre(s) is also helpful in planning appropriate conservation treatment(s) and/or storage methods. Test Method: – ISO  1833-1: 2006.

BLEND COMPOSITION: – To find out the amount of different fibres in the sample.
Test Method:- ISO  1833-1 : 2007.

CHLORIDE AND SULPHATE: – In textile industries, textile material undergo various treatments in course of which extraneous matter of various type as sizing or finish material water soluble salt (chlorides & sulphates) is gathered by or added to textile materials. Such water soluble substances if present in more than certain quantities, may have deleterious effects on the fibrous material.
Test Method: – ISO  22743: 2006.

MOISTURE CONTENT: – When the sample of textile in any form such as yarn, fibre and fabric dried at 105 degrees Celsius, the loss in weight expresses as the moisture content.
Test method: – IS0 17617: 2014.

ASH CONTENT: – When the textile in any form such as yarn, fibre and fabric (which is dried previously) and ignited under prescribed condition and the residue is left express as the Ash content of the specimen. Test method: – ISO  3451-1: 2015

IRON & CHROMIUM: – Iron and Chromium are present in large quantities in textile, dyed in mineral Khaki, mineral khaki dyed material is used mainly for defence and civilians as well for making uniforms. The Iron & Chromium content of the fabric would give an indication regarding the amount of mineral khaki present in the textile material.
Test Method: – ISO  17072-1: 2011.

SOLVENT SOLUBLE MATTER: – A known amount of specimen extract with ethyl ether or benzene methanol mixture as solvent. Solvent is dried and residue is expressed as the percentage of the weight of the textile material.
Test Method: -ISO 4048: 2018.

pH VALUE OF WATER EXTRACT: – The pH of aqueous extract of the textile affords a useful index to its processing history. In addition, it is becoming more common to demand that the textile in its various forms, shall confirm to certain limits in respect of its acidity or alkalinity often expressed in terms of pH values of aqueous extracts.
Test Method: ISO  307: 2005.

SCOURING LOSS: – In the cotton textile industries, yarn and fabrics undergo treatments in the course of which extraneous matter of various type is gathered by or added to the original material which if it is not scoured or is partly scoured may also contain natural impurities such as oil, fats, waxes and pectin’s.
Test Method: – IS0 1383: 1977.

CARBOXYLIC ACID GROUP IN CELLULOSIC TEXTILE MATERIAL : – In the cellulosic textile industries, cellulose in the form of fibres, yarn and fabric comes in contact with different oxidizing agents during the various chemical processing treatments. The action of these oxidizing agents on cellulose may result in the formation of oxy cellulose of acidic character attributable to the introduction of carboxyl group into the cellulose chain molecule.
Test Method: – ISO: – 1061: 1980.

BARIUM ACTIVITY NUMBER: – The ratio of the quantity of barium hydroxide absorbed by mercerized cotton to that absorbed by unmercerized cotton under identical condition multiply by 100.
Test Method: – IS: 1689 – 1973.

Formaldehyde in Textiles Formaldehyde is released from some textile finishes, such as those conferring crease resistance, while the garment is new. These finishes are most likely to be used on fabrics that otherwise crease easily, such as cotton or wool. Formaldehyde is very water soluble, and washing the new garments before wearing will generally reduce the amount of formaldehyde released from the fabric.
Test Method: – IS0 14184-1: 2014.

OEKO – TEX 100 CERTIFICATE.

ZIP TESTING (BS: 3084) 
We are having testing facilities for all types of zips which are commonly used in dresses, knit wears, skirts, jeans, trousers, upholstery, lingerie, jackets, light leather goods, sleeping bags, lightweight & inner tents, foot wears, leather garments, luggage and many more. 

Testing method: – ASTMD2061 – 07: 2013

Footwear Testing

Our laboratories offer wide range of Footwear Testing and Leather Testing like fault diagnosis and performance testing such as slip and skid resistance, choking hazards for children, work shoe steel toe protection, and high heel fatigue resistance, impact and attachment strength among others. Evaluating upper materials, sole materials, miscellaneous components, complete shoe and special requirements. We also provide comprehensive chemical and analytical testing services.

Thickness:-

It specifies a method for determining the thickness of leather. The method is applicable to all types of leather of any tannage. The measurement is valid for both the whole leather and a test sample. Test Method: ISO 2589

Tearing Resistance:-

It specifies a method for determining the stitch tear resistance of leather. It can be used on all leathers but is particularly suitable for leathers over 1,2 mm in thickness. Test Method: ISO 23910

Dry &Wet Rubbing:-

It specifies a method for determining the resistance of the colour of textiles of all kinds, including textile floor coverings and other pile fabrics, to rubbing off and staining other materials. Two tests may be made, one with a dry rubbing cloth and one with a wet rubbing cloth. Testing Method: ISO 105 – X12

Water Vapor Permeability:-

It specifies two test methods for assessing, respectively, the water vapour permeability and the water vapour absorption of uppers or complete upper assembly irrespective of the material, in order to assess the suitability for the end use. Test Method: ISO 17699

Fastness of the colour before the light:-

It specifies a method intended for determining the effect on the colour of textiles of all kinds and in all forms to the action of an artificial light source representative of natural daylight. The method is also applicable to white textiles. Test Method: iSO 105 – B02

Flex Resistance: –

It specifies a test method for determining the flex resistance of rubber- or plastics-coated fabrics in the folded condition. The test method is applicable only to products which can be clamped in the test apparatus used and to products with which the fold made in the test specimen can be caused to move back and forth along the specimen during the test. Test Method: ISO 32100

Acidity degree:-

It specifies a method for determining the pH value and the difference figure of an aqueous leather extract. It is applicable to all types of leather. Test Method: ISO 4045

Water absorption: –

It specifies a method for determining the water absorption of leather under static conditions. The method is applicable to all leather, particularly heavy leather. Test Method: ISO 2417

Foot wear size:-

It specifies a method of designation and marking of footwear size called Mondo point, based on defined measurements of the foot that the footwear is intended to fit. Test Method: ISO 9407 

The strength of the adherence of the face to sole:-

It describes a test method for determining the resistance to separation of the upper from the outsole, for separating adjacent layers of the outsole or for causing tear failure of the upper or the sole. It also defines conditions of ageing that can be used for production control. Test Method: ISO 17708

Formaldehyde:-

It specifies a method for determining the amount of free formaldehyde and formaldehyde extracted partly through hydrolysis by means of a water extraction method. The method can be applied to the testing of textile samples in any form.  Test Method: ISO 14184-1

Azo aryl amines:-

It describes a method to detect the use of certain azo colorants that may not be used in the manufacture or treatment of certain commodities made of textile fibres and that are accessible to reducing agent with and without extraction. Test Method: ISO 14362: 1

Callosity:-

It specifies two methods of test for the determination of the density of solid vulcanized and thermoplastic rubbers. Such determinations are of importance in the control of the quality of a rubber compound and in the calculation of the mass of rubber required to produce a given volume of material. Test Method ISO 2781

Callosity shore A:-

It specifies a method for determining the indentation hardness (Shore hardness) of vulcanized or thermoplastic rubber by means of durometers using the A scale for rubbers in the normal-hardness range; the D scale for rubbers in the high-hardness range; the AO scale for rubbers in the low-hardness range and for cellular rubbers; and the AM scale for thin rubber test pieces in the normal-hardness range. Test Method: ISO 48-4

Flex resistance without crack: –

It specifies a method of test intended for use in comparing the resistance of vulcanized or thermoplastic rubbers to the formation and growth of cracks, when subjected to repeated flexing on the De Mattia type machine. For determination of crack growth, an artificial cut is made in the test piece to initiate cut growth. Test Method: ISO 132

Slip Resistance: –

It specifies a method of test for the slip resistance of PPE footwear. It is not applicable to special purpose footwear containing spikes, metal studs or similar. Test Method: ISO 13287

Hard Metal: –

  • Nickel Release
  • Arsenic
  • Antimony
  • Barium
  • Cadmium
  • Chromium
  • Lead
  • Mercury
  • Selenium
  • Cobalt
  • Nickel
  • Copper