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This test helps in determining the contamination by conceivably harmful microorganisms and different other bacteria. Gastrointestinal disorders and sicknesses, for example, gastro-enteritis, giardiasis, typhoid, looseness of the bowels, cholera, and hepatitis have been connected to water polluted by microorganisms. The micro-organisms which discover their way into a water supply can emerge out of an assortment of sources including sewage, animal wastes, or dead and rotting creatures.
Biochemical oxygen demand:
This test helps in deciding the amount of dissolved oxygen required by aerobic biological microorganisms in a water to separate organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a particular timespan. It’s not an exact quantitative test, despite the fact that it is generally utilized as a sign of the organic quality of water.
Colour in water may be caused by the presence of minerals such as iron and manganese or by substances of vegetable origin such as algae and weeds. Colour tests indicate the efficacy of the water treatment system.
Coliforms (total and faecal):
This test helps in observing the expansion or lessening of numerous pathogenic microorganisms
Total Plate count:
The plate count method depends on microbes growing a colony on a supplement medium with the goal that the settlement ends up noticeable to the unaided eye and the number of colonies on a plate can be checked.
This test helps in deciding the information about the source of contamination.
Enterococci Escherichia coli:
This test helps in identifying the danger of gastrointestinal diseases and other related ailments.
This test helps in distinguishing food poisoning bacteria including Salmonella, Listeria, E.Coli O157, Campylobacter and Clostridium perfringens.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium regularly found in spas and filtered water frameworks. The presence of pseudomonas may cause a few medical issues including skin rash and other skin diseases, ear contamination, urinary tract contamination, and in uncommon examples, pneumonia. As spa or cleaned water framework operator, you should know about pseudomonas, and how to control its development.
This test helps in deciding the water quality. Suspended solids refers to small strong particles which stay in suspension in water as a colloid or because of the movement of the water.
This test helps in determining oil and grease levels is significant for offshore oil platforms, treatment facilities and oil stations. It can likewise be worked flexibly to address a series of procedure issues. The most common sites of operation are prior to and after water purification systems, such as primary to tertiary water separators, water feeds and filtration equipment.
In sewage system, Hydrogen sulfide and volatile organosulfur compounds are considered to have the greatest potential of creating health risks, apart from the odor nuisance. Even low concentration of them can cause significant health problems. Hydrogen sulfide escaping into the air from sulfide-containing wastewater causes odor nuisances.
The pH of water determines the solubility (amount that can be dissolved in the water) and biological availability (amount that can be utilized by aquatic life) of chemical constituents such as nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) and heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, etc.). Excessively high and low pHs can be detrimental for the use of water. High pH causes a bitter taste, water pipes and water-using appliances become encrusted with deposits, and it depresses the effectiveness of the disinfection of chlorine, thereby causing the need for additional chlorine when pH is high. Low-pH water will corrode or dissolve metals and other substances.
Total suspended solids (TSS):
Total Suspended Solids (TSS) is a measurement of the total solids in a water or wastewater sample that are retained by filtration. TSS is an important water quality parameter measure for wastewater treatment operations and environmental health. Wastewater contains large quantities of suspended organic and inorganic material that must be removed through screening, filtration or settling/flotation methods prior to environmental discharge. TSS will also have adverse affects on UV disinfection blocking/scattering UV light bound for pathogen disinfection or alternatively requiring higher intensity for proper disinfection, increasing energy costs.
Total dissolved solids (TDS):
Total dissolved solids (TDS) is a measure of the dissolved combined content of all inorganic and organic substances present in a liquid in molecular, ionized, or micro-granular (colloidal sol) suspended form. The principal application of TDS is in the study of water quality for streams, rivers, and lakes. Although TDS is not generally considered a primary pollutant (e.g. it is not deemed to be associated with health effects), it is used as an indication of aesthetic characteristics of drinking water and as an aggregate indicator of the presence of a broad array of chemical contaminants.
A common contaminant found mainly in groundwater. High nitrate concentrations can be particularly dangerous for babies under six months, since nitrate interferes with the ability of blood to carry oxygen.
Excessive amounts of sulfate can have a laxative effect or cause gastrointestinal irritation.
Fluoride is an essential micro-nutrient, but excessive amounts can cause dental problems.
Ions such as sodium, chloride, sulphate, iron, and manganese can impart objectionable taste or odor to water.
Alkalinity is important for fish and aquatic life because it protects or buffers against rapid pH changes. Living organisms, especially aquatic life, function best in a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0. Alkalinity is a measure of how much acid can be added to a liquid without causing a large change in pH. Higher alkalinity levels in surface waters will buffer acid rain and other acid wastes and prevent pH changes that are harmful to aquatic life.
Turbidity in water is because of suspended solids and colloidal matter. It may be due to eroded soil caused by dredging or due to the growth of micro-organisms. High turbidity makes filtration expensive. If sewage solids are present, pathogens may be encased in the particles and escape the action of chlorine during disinfection.
Odour and taste:
Odour and taste are associated with the presence of living microscopic organisms; or decaying organic matter including weeds, algae; or industrial wastes containing ammonia, phenols, halogens, hydrocarbons. This taste is imparted to fish, rendering them unpalatable. While chlorination dilutes odour and taste caused by some contaminants, it generates a foul odour itself when added to waters polluted with detergents, algae and some other wastes.
Calcium and Magnesium:
Minerals like calcium, sodium and magnesium do not necessarily have a direct impact on your health. But their presence causes hard water. Hard water results in dry, itchy skin. Another sign includes reduced lifespan of clothing and household appliances.
Metals and Heavy metals:
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and ground waters). Water pollution occurs when pollutants like heavy metals are discharged directly or indirectly into the water bodies. The presence of polluting metals like Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe and Zn are known to show effect on human body. Emission spectroscopy using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is the rapid, sensitive, and convenient method for the determination of metals in water and wastewater samples.
The extensive use of pesticides harms the soil, air, food surface and ground waters and quality causing serious impacts on the environment and on human health. In natural waters pesticide residues are present at very low levels and can be degraded when submitted to lower pH levels or exposed to solar radiation. The presence of organic contaminants in the environment are a result of pollution from various anthropogenic activities. Pesticides, generated by the intensification of agriculture, are regarded as some of the most dangerous contaminants of the environment, despite their numerous merits. Not only are they toxic, they are also mobile and capable of bioaccumulation Pesticides in environmental samples are analysed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using isotope dilution and internal standard quantitation techniques.
Volatile organic compounds:
Volatile Organic Compounds or VOCs are a class or group of organic chemicals that contain carbon and tell to volatilize or evaporate into the atmosphere, such as: benzene, toluene, etc. Volatile organic compounds can have a variety of harmful health effects. The risk to human health is a function of the exposure route, level of exposure, and length of the exposure. In general, exposure to low levels of certain VOCs over long periods of time may lead to impaired immune system function, may damage the liver or increase the risk of cancer. At high levels of exposure, many VOCs can cause central nervous system depression (drowsiness, stupor). For short-term exposure, it is possible that the organics can irritate the skin or to the mucous membranes if inhaled.
Chemical oxygen demand:
The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a measure of water and wastewater quality. The COD test is often used to monitor water treatment plant efficiency. This test is based on the fact that a strong oxidizing agent, under acidic conditions, can fully oxidize almost any organic compound to carbon dioxide. The COD is the amount of oxygen consumed to chemically oxidize organic water contaminants to inorganic end products.
Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH):
Petroleum products occur as complex mixtures of chemicals, primarily hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in varying structural configurations.
Poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH):
Most petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures contain very low concentrations of PAHs. A number of these are considered above under the appropriate carbon fractions. The major concern regarding PAHs is the potential carcinogenicity of some molecules. Benzo(a)pyrene and benz(a)anthracene are classified as probable human carcinogens.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs):
PCBs are a group of man-made organic chemicals consisting of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine atoms. The number of chlorine atoms and their location in a PCB molecule determine many of its physical and chemical properties. PCBs have no known taste or smell, and range in consistency from an oil to a waxy solid. PCBs are a health hazard. Children are particularly susceptible to the health effects of PCBs. Consuming water with high levels of PCBs over time can cause health effects such as Acne and rashes Liver and kidney dysfunction, Depression and fatigue, Nose and lung irritation ,Increased risk of cancer and Developmental problems in children